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智慧工地帶來的 “安全感”

  • 2022-06-29
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安全帽(mao)里植(zhi)入芯片,定位在場施工(gong)人員(yuan),追蹤其(qi)行動(dong)軌(gui)跡;施工(gong)現場“電子眼”全覆蓋,了解施工(gong)進度,及(ji)時發現安全隱(yin)患,緊“盯”施工(gong)安全;利用AR(增強(qiang)現實(shi))、VR(虛擬現實(shi))技(ji)術(shu),在沉(chen)浸式(shi)互動(dong)體驗(yan)中加強(qiang)工(gong)人安全教育……與鋼筋混凝土打交(jiao)道的(de)工(gong)地(di),這樣的(de)“智慧”場景隨處可(ke)見。

隨著互聯網、物聯網和數(shu)字(zi)技術加速應用(yong),推進(jin)“智(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)慧工(gong)(gong)(gong)地(di)”建(jian)設(she)已成(cheng)為推動建(jian)造方(fang)式轉型升級的(de)(de)突破口和著力點、助力建(jian)筑業高質量(liang)發展(zhan)的(de)(de)重(zhong)要路徑、實(shi)現(xian)(xian)施(shi)(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)安(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)生產治理(li)(li)體系與能(neng)(neng)力現(xian)(xian)代化(hua)(hua)的(de)(de)重(zhong)要方(fang)法。“智(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)慧工(gong)(gong)(gong)地(di)”基于BIM(建(jian)筑信(xin)息(xi)模型)+AI(人工(gong)(gong)(gong)智(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)能(neng)(neng))智(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)能(neng)(neng)大數(shu)據(ju)中(zhong)心和云(yun)平臺,圍繞建(jian)筑工(gong)(gong)(gong)程(cheng)項目(mu)全(quan)(quan)生命(ming)周(zhou)期(qi),集(ji)成(cheng)安(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)、質量(liang)、綠(lv)色施(shi)(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)、勞務實(shi)名制等(deng)多(duo)個管(guan)(guan)理(li)(li)模塊,支撐現(xian)(xian)場(chang)(chang)管(guan)(guan)理(li)(li)、互聯協(xie)同(tong)、智(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)能(neng)(neng)決策、數(shu)據(ju)共享的(de)(de)信(xin)息(xi)化(hua)(hua)系統協(xie)助完成(cheng)監督(du)和管(guan)(guan)理(li)(li)工(gong)(gong)(gong)作,全(quan)(quan)方(fang)位監控(kong)施(shi)(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)現(xian)(xian)場(chang)(chang),形成(cheng)信(xin)息(xi)化(hua)(hua)、數(shu)字(zi)化(hua)(hua)、可視化(hua)(hua)的(de)(de)項目(mu)管(guan)(guan)理(li)(li)體系。信(xin)息(xi)化(hua)(hua)技術的(de)(de)運用(yong)讓工(gong)(gong)(gong)地(di)長(chang)了(le)“眼睛(jing)”“耳朵”“鼻子”,看(kan)得見違(wei)章、聽得見噪(zao)音、嗅得到隱患,實(shi)時(shi)精(jing)確把控(kong)施(shi)(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)現(xian)(xian)場(chang)(chang)脈絡。筆(bi)者總結了(le)現(xian)(xian)有“智(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)慧工(gong)(gong)(gong)地(di)”在(zai)施(shi)(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)安(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)管(guan)(guan)理(li)(li)中(zhong)的(de)(de)應用(yong),看(kan)看(kan)“智(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)慧工(gong)(gong)(gong)地(di)”為整個施(shi)(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)過程(cheng)帶來了(le)怎樣(yang)的(de)(de)“安(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)感”。

人(ren)員信(xin)息安全管(guan)控

癥結

建(jian)筑施(shi)工過(guo)程(cheng)用工量大,面對超齡、技(ji)能水平、考(kao)勤記(ji)錄(lu)等(deng)人員日常管理問題,僅依靠管理人員手工記(ji)錄(lu)等(deng)傳(chuan)統管理方式已難以適應復雜多變的工地情況(kuang),無法實現對工人的有效監管。

護航(hang)

結(jie)合(he)多種(zhong)互(hu)聯網(wang)技(ji)術化手段,將(jiang)人的(de)行為管起(qi)來。

人(ren)(ren)是安(an)(an)全(quan)工(gong)(gong)作的(de)(de)核心,是現(xian)場安(an)(an)全(quan)管(guan)(guan)理(li)(li)中能動(dong)(dong)性(xing)最強、最靈活的(de)(de)因素。“智慧工(gong)(gong)地”對(dui)施工(gong)(gong)人(ren)(ren)員(yuan)(yuan)進(jin)行高效精準管(guan)(guan)控,對(dui)于施工(gong)(gong)現(xian)場安(an)(an)全(quan)管(guan)(guan)理(li)(li)工(gong)(gong)作具(ju)有重要意義。設(she)置人(ren)(ren)臉(lian)識(shi)別門禁系統,對(dui)施工(gong)(gong)人(ren)(ren)員(yuan)(yuan)的(de)(de)身(shen)份信(xin)息、進(jin)出(chu)場等(deng)進(jin)行實(shi)名(ming)制(zhi)登記(ji)(ji)管(guan)(guan)理(li)(li),既能實(shi)時打卡,保(bao)護(hu)工(gong)(gong)友權益(yi),又能規范(fan)人(ren)(ren)員(yuan)(yuan)進(jin)出(chu),保(bao)障工(gong)(gong)地人(ren)(ren)員(yuan)(yuan)安(an)(an)全(quan)。借助該系統信(xin)息集成個人(ren)(ren)身(shen)份信(xin)息、技(ji)能水平(ping)、薪資賬戶等(deng),建(jian)立施工(gong)(gong)人(ren)(ren)員(yuan)(yuan)信(xin)息數據(ju)庫,方便(bian)快(kuai)捷地記(ji)(ji)錄工(gong)(gong)人(ren)(ren)的(de)(de)施工(gong)(gong)活動(dong)(dong)、考勤(qin)記(ji)(ji)錄等(deng)。與(yu)(yu)此同時,與(yu)(yu)住房和城鄉建(jian)設(she)主管(guan)(guan)部(bu)門的(de)(de)監(jian)控平(ping)臺“聯網”,隨時更新(xin)數據(ju),方便(bian)管(guan)(guan)理(li)(li)人(ren)(ren)員(yuan)(yuan)統計(ji)與(yu)(yu)分析(xi)人(ren)(ren)員(yuan)(yuan)分布、人(ren)(ren)員(yuan)(yuan)流動(dong)(dong)、考勤(qin)數據(ju),實(shi)現(xian)實(shi)名(ming)制(zhi)管(guan)(guan)理(li)(li)的(de)(de)信(xin)息化和一體化,避免勞(lao)務糾紛。施工(gong)(gong)人(ren)(ren)員(yuan)(yuan)也可以快(kuai)速查(cha)詢(xun)當(dang)月的(de)(de)上班天數、每日打卡的(de)(de)時間,隨時查(cha)看考勤(qin)記(ji)(ji)錄,工(gong)(gong)人(ren)(ren)工(gong)(gong)作生活更踏實(shi)放心。

為(wei)減(jian)少(shao)不安全行為(wei),針對現場(chang)重點(dian)區域,布(bu)設(she)AI智能識別系統,通過大數據與人(ren)工(gong)智能實現無人(ren)化的(de)高效管理方式,24小時監管不當行為(wei),自(zi)動識別施(shi)工(gong)人(ren)員進入工(gong)地(di)之(zhi)后的(de)安全帽、反(fan)光衣穿戴情(qing)況,自(zi)動識別煙(yan)霧(wu)、火種(zhong)以及(ji)(ji)區域入侵等。一旦發現不合規或異常情(qing)況,及(ji)(ji)時現場(chang)聯(lian)動工(gong)地(di)智能語(yu)音終端(duan)、播(bo)報預警以及(ji)(ji)違規記錄與數據統計,保障(zhang)人(ren)員安全。

機(ji)械設備安全監控

癥結(jie)

塔吊(diao)、升降機(ji)(ji)、吊(diao)籃等作(zuo)業(ye)活動(dong)本身(shen)潛藏高空作(zuo)業(ye)風險(xian),防護裝置或防護用品存在缺陷都(dou)會(hui)導致(zhi)安全事故(gu)的發生。傳(chuan)統施(shi)工現(xian)場如果想判斷塔吊(diao)是否違規超載(zai),腳手架、模板和塔式起重機(ji)(ji)等垂直運輸機(ji)(ji)械作(zuo)業(ye)是否有效防護,最常(chang)用的辦法就是讓管(guan)理人(ren)員到現(xian)場查(cha)看(kan),操作(zuo)人(ren)員憑借(jie)經驗(yan)進行(xing)操作(zuo),但人(ren)工排(pai)查(cha)不(bu)能做到隨(sui)時隨(sui)地,安全隱患無法及時準確(que)地暴露出來。

護航

借助實時監測系(xi)統(tong)解決工地安全隱患,將(jiang)設(she)(she)施設(she)(she)備管(guan)起來。

工(gong)地(di)接(jie)入(ru)智(zhi)(zhi)慧系統后,工(gong)地(di)內作業層、塔吊、施(shi)(shi)工(gong)電梯等(deng)存在安全隱患的(de)部位均安裝(zhuang)了實時監(jian)(jian)測設備,能對塔吊的(de)起重(zhong)量、力矩、幅度(du)、高(gao)度(du)、風速、群(qun)塔防碰撞(zhuang)等(deng)項(xiang)目(mu)和施(shi)(shi)工(gong)電梯的(de)載重(zhong)、人數(shu)(shu)、上下限位等(deng)實時監(jian)(jian)測,傳出的(de)視頻(pin)和采(cai)集的(de)數(shu)(shu)據全部集中到“智(zhi)(zhi)慧工(gong)地(di)”云(yun)平(ping)臺(tai)上展(zhan)示,管理人員(yuan)通過(guo)手機終端(duan)也能實時查看(kan)。通過(guo)監(jian)(jian)控(kong)(kong)平(ping)臺(tai)可視化模(mo)塊對視頻(pin)進(jin)行(xing)回放、局(ju)部放大、拉近,實現(xian)(xian)全天候、全方位、無死(si)角實時管控(kong)(kong)各(ge)個(ge)工(gong)程現(xian)(xian)場(chang),全面詳(xiang)細掌握現(xian)(xian)場(chang)作業是否規范、有(you)無違章行(xing)為、現(xian)(xian)場(chang)安全措施(shi)(shi)是否到位。除此之外,安全管理人員(yuan)到現(xian)(xian)場(chang)檢查設備只需(xu)帶上手機拍照即可生成整改單據,直(zhi)達對應責任人,相關現(xian)(xian)場(chang)負(fu)責人進(jin)行(xing)整改后再上傳平(ping)臺(tai),在移動端(duan)便可實現(xian)(xian)形成安全閉(bi)環管理,極大提(ti)(ti)高(gao)了安全問題的(de)整改效率,提(ti)(ti)升了項(xiang)目(mu)安全指數(shu)(shu)。

如(ru)果工(gong)地現場“起火(huo)(huo)”,如(ru)何(he)判斷是正常的(de)(de)焊接等明火(huo)(huo)操(cao)作,還是哪里“著了火(huo)(huo)”?有的(de)(de)智慧工(gong)地系(xi)統可以通過人工(gong)智能視覺分析(xi)與(yu)熱成像技術(shu),基于深度學(xue)習的(de)(de)物體跟蹤與(yu)物體識(shi)別算法(fa),結合人工(gong)智能AI芯(xin)片(pian),對(dui)動(dong)火(huo)(huo)區域(yu)進行實(shi)時監測,對(dui)動(dong)火(huo)(huo)作業(ye)全(quan)過程所采集的(de)(de)實(shi)時視頻流進行智能分析(xi)。

AR+VR安全教育

癥結

有人曾將(jiang)傳統(tong)的(de)工地(di)現場安全教育(yu)笑稱為說教式(shi)教育(yu)“老三樣(yang)”——讀規(gui)章制度(du)、看事(shi)故視頻、簽名,沒有跟實際相結合,施工從業人員無法親身(shen)感(gan)受違規(gui)操(cao)作帶來的(de)危(wei)害(hai),難以(yi)對安全生(sheng)產有深刻的(de)理解和感(gan)受,安全防范意識低。

護航

采(cai)用虛擬現實技術,培訓(xun)人(ren)員“親歷”施工安全事(shi)故(gu),敲響安全警鐘。

在(zai)傳統工(gong)地(di)(di)(di)安(an)全(quan)教(jiao)育見效較差(cha)的(de)(de)情況(kuang)下,VR、AR、3D與(yu)工(gong)地(di)(di)(di)結(jie)合在(zai)一起,成(cheng)(cheng)為工(gong)地(di)(di)(di)安(an)全(quan)教(jiao)育的(de)(de)一種(zhong)手(shou)段(duan)。根據項目部實(shi)際情況(kuang),對于建筑施(shi)工(gong)企業主要負(fu)責(ze)人、項目負(fu)責(ze)人、專職安(an)全(quan)生產(chan)管理人員及特種(zhong)作業人員的(de)(de)培訓,針對危險性(xing)較大(da)的(de)(de)分(fen)部分(fen)項工(gong)程(cheng)安(an)全(quan)管理等(deng)重點(dian)內(nei)容,建造安(an)全(quan)教(jiao)育智慧(hui)培訓系(xi)統。在(zai)工(gong)地(di)(di)(di)施(shi)工(gong)現場(chang)設置工(gong)地(di)(di)(di)VR智能(neng)安(an)全(quan)教(jiao)育體驗館,采用成(cheng)(cheng)熟(shu)的(de)(de)VR、AR、3D技術,結(jie)合電動機(ji)械,考量(liang)工(gong)地(di)(di)(di)施(shi)工(gong)的(de)(de)安(an)全(quan)隱(yin)患,以三維動態的(de)(de)形式創建與(yu)現實(shi)類似(si)的(de)(de)環(huan)境,3D模擬出(chu)工(gong)地(di)(di)(di)施(shi)工(gong)場(chang)景和險情。

VR安(an)全(quan)體驗、虛擬消防滅火系統、安(an)全(quan)教育魔盒……培訓人員通過(guo)佩戴VR眼鏡(jing)等設備(bei),沉浸式(shi)、可互動式(shi)進行現場漫游、熟悉建筑構件、了解施(shi)工(gong)流程,“親歷”施(shi)工(gong)安(an)全(quan)事故的發(fa)生(sheng),掌握(wo)相應防范要(yao)點和應急(ji)措施(shi),加深對安(an)全(quan)生(sheng)產的理解和感受。

智(zhi)能穿戴安(an)全防(fang)護

癥結(jie)

施工(gong)現場多(duo)為(wei)露天作業,施工(gong)人員長(chang)時間(jian)直接暴露在高溫、嚴寒的(de)工(gong)作環境中進行高強(qiang)度工(gong)作,尤其從事(shi)高空作業、光線較差的(de)地下或夜(ye)班(ban)作業等,稍有松懈就可能(neng)發生安(an)全(quan)事(shi)故。

護航

智能(neng)安全帽、智能(neng)手環、智能(neng)眼鏡(jing)等智能(neng)穿戴設(she)備,幫助施工(gong)人員做好安全防(fang)護。

安全(quan)(quan)帽(mao)是安全(quan)(quan)生產的(de)(de)重要(yao)保(bao)障,每一個進入現場(chang)的(de)(de)人(ren)員(yuan)(yuan)都必須(xu)佩戴安全(quan)(quan)帽(mao),因此智(zhi)能安全(quan)(quan)帽(mao)是智(zhi)能穿戴設備在工程(cheng)施工中應(ying)用最(zui)廣泛的(de)(de)產品(pin)。智(zhi)能安全(quan)(quan)帽(mao)內(nei)(nei)置(zhi)了(le)高科技集成芯片和多種(zhong)傳(chuan)感器,集GPS(全(quan)(quan)球定(ding)(ding)位(wei)系(xi)統)定(ding)(ding)位(wei)、脫帽(mao)預(yu)(yu)(yu)警、工作效率(lv)分析、項目(mu)電子圍欄等功(gong)能于一體,記錄工人(ren)的(de)(de)行動(dong)軌跡。當施工人(ren)員(yuan)(yuan)到達某一危(wei)險源特定(ding)(ding)范圍內(nei)(nei)時,就會觸發內(nei)(nei)置(zhi)的(de)(de)預(yu)(yu)(yu)警系(xi)統,對(dui)其提出警告,信息也(ye)會實時發送到管理終端,項目(mu)部管理人(ren)員(yuan)(yuan)可(ke)以(yi)及時鎖(suo)定(ding)(ding)危(wei)險源位(wei)置(zhi)和相應(ying)施工人(ren)員(yuan)(yuan),給出指令(ling)措施,預(yu)(yu)(yu)防(fang)事故發生。智(zhi)能安全(quan)(quan)帽(mao)實現了(le)基礎防(fang)護工具到智(zhi)能工具的(de)(de)轉變,加快(kuai)了(le)建(jian)造行業的(de)(de)智(zhi)慧化進程(cheng),推動(dong)傳(chuan)統建(jian)筑業向智(zhi)慧建(jian)造發展。

建筑(zhu)(zhu)業(ye)是(shi)一個“高危”行業(ye),隨(sui)時(shi)隨(sui)地存在著隱藏的(de)(de)危險。安全(quan)(quan)生(sheng)(sheng)產是(shi)建筑(zhu)(zhu)業(ye)不(bu)可觸碰(peng)的(de)(de)底(di)線,所(suo)有(you)工地都要增強施(shi)(shi)工安全(quan)(quan)意識、規范安全(quan)(quan)行為、弘揚安全(quan)(quan)文化,時(shi)刻拉緊安全(quan)(quan)生(sheng)(sheng)產生(sheng)(sheng)命紅線。“智慧工地”的(de)(de)建設(she)與應用,可有(you)效預(yu)防違規作業(ye)導致的(de)(de)安全(quan)(quan)事故發生(sheng)(sheng),實現規范施(shi)(shi)工管理、減少(shao)安全(quan)(quan)隱患、節省人力投入、降(jiang)低運(yun)營成本(ben),提前(qian)化解風險,為建筑(zhu)(zhu)施(shi)(shi)工安全(quan)(quan)生(sheng)(sheng)產保駕護航